On December 7, 2011, DOD introduced a new clause for contracts estimated to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold. DOD now requires contractors to certify that any request for equitable adjustment (REA) exceeding that threshold in amount is "made in good faith, and that the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of [the contractor's] knowledge and belief."
Just to review the bidding, contractors may seek REA's for upward adjustments in price and schedule extensions on any government contract containing the standard Changes clause. For commercial item contracts awarded under FAR Part 12, it's a difference story. There, the changes clause says changes may only be made by mutual agreement of the parties. However, REA's can be submitted under breach of contract theories on commercial item contracts. In any event, if you have the new clause in DFARS 252.243-7002, you must certify your REA.
This is not the same certification required under FAR Subpart 33.2. If you desire to convert your REA to a claim, you must use the certification language at FAR 33.207. That certification adds another clause to the certification asserting the contractor's belief the amount accurately reflects what it believes the government must pay and attests to the certifier's eligibility to make the certification. If you want to request the contracting officer's final decision thereby affording yourself the opportunity to appeal that decision and you want to recover interest on your REA, you must certify it with the exact language from FAR 33.207. Although minor informalities in the language can be corrected later, you should use the exact language in the regulation.
REA's are an integral part of the public contracting scheme. One of the major differences between public and private commercial contracts is the use by the government of the Changes clause. Because the government dictates the mandatory use of this clause and thereby maintains total control over the contractor's performance, the law has developed various remedies for the contractor to recover additional costs (and profit on those costs) under various theories called constructive changes. (These constructive changes are actually breaches of the contract given a different name.)
We've written several blogs about breaches of government obligations under every contract. The government's specifications must be free of errors, conflicts and omissions and must permit commercially practicable performance. The government is obligated to cooperate with the contractor, not interfere in the contractor's performance and communicate with the contractor. The govenment is obliged to provide information vital to the contractor's performance. There are other types of constructive changes such as constructive acceleration of performance (where the government unjustifiably denies the contractor's request for a schedule extension). Differing interpretations of contract language give rise to constructive changes.
The take away points are these: (1) you have a right to seek redress for constructive changes; (2) if you submit an REA on a DOD contract, you must certify it under DFARS 252.243-7002; (3) if you want to convert your REA to a claim, you then must recertify it in accordance with FAR 33.207; and (4) call us as we are experts at preparing REA's and claims.